PROGRAM NAME

GRADE 12

ELIGIBILITY

AFTER RELEVANT GRADE 11

DURATION

1 YEAR

Chemistry (CH 1206) - Grade 12

Unit Area Covered Marks
Unit 1 Solid State 05 Read more
Unit 2 Solutions 05 Read more
Unit 3 Electrochemistry 05 Read more
Unit 4 Chemical Kinetics 10 Read more
Unit 5 Surface Chemistry 05 Read more
Unit 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements 10 Read more
Unit 7 P-Block Elements 05 Read more
Unit 8 D- AND F- Block Elements 05 Read more
Unit 9 Coordination Compounds 05 Read more
Unit 10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 10 Read more
Unit 11 Haloalkanes And Haloarenes 05 Read more
Unit 12 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 05 Read more
Unit 13 Aldehydes, Ketones And Carboxylic Acids 10 Read more
Unit 14 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen 10 Read more
Unit 15 Chemistry in and Around Us 05 Read more
Total Marks 100

Unit 1


Solid State

  • Introduction to Solid State Chemistry
    • Characteristics of Solid State
  • Classification of Solids on the Basis of Order in the Arrangement
    • Crystalline and amorphous Solids
  • Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
    • Primitive and Centred Unit Cells
    • Number of atoms in per unit Cell in acubic unit cell
  • Close Packing in solids
    • Packing in Solids
    • Voids
    • Packing Efficiency
    • Calculation of density of unit cell
  • Imperfections in Solids
    • Types of Point Defects
  • Electrical Properties
    • Conductors, semiconductors and insulators
    • Band theory of solids
    • n & p type semiconductors
  • Magnetic Properties
    • Paramagnetic
    • Diamagnetic
    • Ferromagnetic
    • Antiferromagnetic
    • Ferrimagnetic

Unit 2


Solutions

  • Introduction to solutions
    • Solute
    • Solvent
    • Solution
  • Types of Solutions
    • Gaseous Solutions
    • Liquid Solutions
    • Solid solutions
  • Expressing the Concentration of Solutions of Solids in Liquids
    • Various quantities used to express concentration of a solution
  • Solubility
    • Solubility of solid in liquid
    • Solubility of gas in liquid
    • Henry's law
  • Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions
    • Solution of two volatile liquids
    • Solution containing non-volatile solute
    • Raoult's law
  • Classification of Liquid-Liquid Solutions on Basis of Raoult's Law
    • Ideal solutions
    • Non Ideal solutions
    • Positive deviation
    • Negative deviation
  • Colligative Properties
    • Relative lowering of vapour pressure
    • Elevation of boiling point
    • Depression of freezing point
    • Osmotic pressure
    • Determination of molecular masses using colligative properties
  • Abnormal Molecular Mass
    • van't Hoff factor

Unit 3


Electrochemistry

  • Introduction to Electrochemistry
    • Redox reactions
  • Types of Electrochemical Cells
    • Electrolytic cells
    • Galvanic cells
  • Electrolysis
    • Electrode
    • Sign conventions at anode and cathode
    • Laws of electrolysis
  • Conductance in Electrolytic Solutions
    • Metallic and electrolytic conductance
    • Types of electrolytes
    • Conductance
    • Resistance
    • Molar conductivity
    • Variation of conductivity with concentration
    • Kohlrausch's Law
  • Galvanic Cells
    • EMF of a cell
    • Standard electrode potential
    • Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells
    • Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell
  • Application of emf studies
    • Corrosion

Unit 4


Chemical Kinetics

  • Introduction to Chemical Kinetics
  • Rate of Chemical Reaction
    • Average rate of reaction
    • Instantaneous rate of reaction
  • Factors Affecting Rate of a Reaction
    • Concentration
    • Temperature
    • Catalyst
    • Nature of Reactants
    • Pressure (gases)
    • Presence of light
    • Surface area of the reactants
  • Integrated Rate Equations and Half life
    • Zero order reactions
    • First order reactions
    • Pseudo First order reaction
  • Temperature Dependence of Rate of Reaction
    • Activation Energy
    • Arrhenius Equation
  • Collision Theory

Unit 5


Surface Chemistry

  • Introduction to Surface Chemistry
  • Adsorption on a Surface
    • Physisorption
    • Chemisorption
    • Factors affecting the adsorption of gases on solids
  • Catalysis
    • Homogenous and heterogeneous catalysis
    • Shape selective catalysis
    • Enzyme catalysis
  • Colloids
    • Distinction between true solution, colloid and suspension
    • Classification of colloids
    • Properties of colloids
  • Emulsions
    • Types of emulsions

Unit 6


General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

  • Introduction to Metallurgy
  • General Principles of Metallurgy
    • Ores
    • Steps in the extraction of metals
  • Concentration of Ore
    • Hydraulic washing
    • Magnetic separation
    • Froth flotation
    • Leaching
  • Conversion of ore to oxide
    • Calcination
    • Roasting
  • Reduction of Ore to Crude Metal
    • Smelting
    • Reduction with hydrogen
    • Alumino-thermite process
    • Air reduction
    • Bessemerization
    • Reduction by electrolysis
  • Refining of Metals
    • Liquation
    • Cupellation
    • Hydrometallurgy
    • Vapor phase refining
    • Zone refining
    • Electrolytic refining
  • Thermodynamics of Metallurgical Processes

Unit 7


P-Block Elements

  • Introduction to P-Block Elements
  • Group 15 Elements
    • Electronic configuration
    • Oxidation states
    • Reactivity of nitrogen and phosphorus
    • Allotropic forms of phosphorus
    • Compounds
  • Group 16 elements
    • Electronic configuration
    • Oxidation states
    • Classification of oxides
    • Allotropic forms of sulphur
  • Group 17 Elements
    • Electronic configuration
    • Physical properties
    • Reactivity
    • Interhalogen compounds
    • Pseudohalogens
  • Group 18 Elements
    • Electronic configuration
    • Clathrates

Unit 8


D- AND F- Block Elements

  • Introduction to D and F-Block Elements
  • d-Block elements
    • General properties of 3d elements
    • Electronic configuration
    • Variable valency concept
    • Color
    • Magnetic properties
    • Catalytic properties
    • Compounds
  • F-Block Elements
    • Electronic configuration
    • Oxidation states
    • Lanthanide contraction

Unit 9


Hydrogen

  • Introduction to Coordination Compounds
  • Coordination Compounds
    • General composition
    • Coordination number
    • Types of ligands Werner theory
  • IUPAC Nomenclature of Coordination
  • Compounds IUPAC rules
  • Valence Bond Theory as Applied to Coordination Compounds
    • Valence bond
    • theory
    • Crystal field theory
  • Importance of Coordination Compounds
    • Analytical applications
    • Industrial applications
    • Biological applications

Unit 10


Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  • General Introduction
    • Aliphatic and Aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Benzene)
    • Methods of preparation
    • Decarboxylation of aromatic acids and reduction of phenol
    • Physical properties
    • Chemical reactions (nitration, sulphonation, halogenation and Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation)

Unit 11


Haloalkanes And Haloarenes

  • Introduction to Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Structure
    • Classification
    • Structure of 1 o, 2o and 3o haloalkanes and haloarenes
  • Preparation
    • Preparation of haloalkanes from alcohols
    • Preparation of haloarenes from phenols
    • Sandmeyer's reaction
    • Preparation of alkyl iodides from alkyl chlorides and bromides
  • Physical Properties
    • Physical Properties of Haloalkanes
    • Physical Properties of Haloarenes
  • Chemical Properties
    • Nature of C-X bond
    • Chemical Properties of Haloalkanes (SN2 and SN1, elimination of HX
    • Chemical Properties of Haloarenes (halogenation, nitration , sulphonation, Friedel Craft's reaction, Wurtz-Fittig and Fittig reaction)
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes around us

Unit 12


Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

  • Introduction to Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Structure
    • Structure of alcohols, phenols and ethers
    • Classification
  • Preparation of Alcohols and Phenols
    • Preparation of alcohols (hydration of alkenes, hydroboration-oxidation, reduction of carbonyl compounds, from Grignard's reagent)
    • Preparation of Phenols (from chlorobenzene, benzene and cumene)
  • Properties of Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Physical Properties of Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Chemical Properties of Alcohols (with metals, esterification, esterification, with HX, dehydration)
  • Chemical Properties of Phenols (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Kolbe's, Reimer- Tiemann, deoxygenation and oxidation)
  • Alcohols Around us
  • Preparation of Ethers
    • Preparation from alcohols
    • Williamsons ether synthesis
  • Chemical Properties of Ethers
    • Ether cleavage by HX
    • halogenation, nitration and Friedel Craft's reaction

Unit 13


Aldehydes, Ketones And Carboxylic Acids

  • Introduction to Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Structure of Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    • From alcohols
    • From alkenes
    • From alkynes
    • From aromatic
    • hydrocarbons
    • Gattermann-Koch
    • From acid chlorides
    • From nitriles
  • Physical, Chemical Properties and Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones
    • Physical Properties of aldehydes and ketones
    • Chemical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Carboxylic acids
    • Structure of carboxylic acid
    • Preparation of carboxylic acids (by oxidation, hydrolysis, from Grignard reagents)
    • Physical properties of carboxylic acids
    • Chemical properties of carboxylic acids

Unit 14


Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

  • Introduction
  • Structure
  • Preparation of Amines
    • By reduction of nitro compounds, nitriles and amides
    • Ammonolysis of alkyl halides
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Amines
    • Physical Properties of Amines
    • Chemical Properties of Amines
  • Diazonium Salts
    • Nomenclature
    • Structure
    • Methods of Preparation
    • Physical properties
    • Chemical Properties

Unit 15


Chemistry in and Around Us

  • Biomolecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Amino acids and proteins
    • Nucleic acids
    • Vitamins
  • Polymers
    • Classification
    • Methods of polymerization
    • Preparation of Some polymers
  • Chemicals in Medicines, Food and Hygiene (Soaps and Detergents)
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