Geography (GE 1210) - Grade 12

Unit Area Covered Marks
Unit 1 Human Geography: Nature and Scop 10 Read more
Unit 2 Population 05 Read more
Unit 3 Human Activities 05 Read more
Unit 4 Transport Communication and Trade 20 Read more
Unit 5 Human Settlement 10 Read more
Unit 6 Monsoon Asia : People 10 Read more
Unit 7 Human Settlements 10 Read more
Unit 8 Resources and Development 10 Read more
Unit 9 Transport Communication and International Trade 10 Read more
Unit 10 Geographical Perspective on Selected issues And Problems 10 Read more
Total Marks 100

Unit 1

Human Geography: Nature and Scope

  • Nature and Scope
    • comprehend the nature and scope of human Geography.
    • understand different concepts and differentiate between them.

Unit 2


  • Population — distribution, density and growth
  • Determinants of population change: birth rate, death rate and migration, demographic transition theory.
  • Patterns, causes and consequences of population change.
  • Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition
  • Human development selected indicators, international comparisons.

Unit 3

Human Activities

  • Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, fishing, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – with examples.
  • Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities- with examples
  • Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and communication; services; people engaged in tertiary activities- with examples
  • Quaternary and quinary activities-concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in quaternary and quinary activities- with examples
  • comprehend the concepts of quarternary andquinary activities. Understand knowledge based industries. Familiarise with people in these activities.

Unit 4

Transport Communication and Trade

  • Land transport - roads, railways, including trans-continental railways
  • Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes.
  • Air transport- domestic and international
  • Oil and gas pipelines.
  • Satellite communication and cyber space.
  • International trade: ports as gateways, changing patterns, role of WTO

Unit 5

Human Settlement

  • Types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems.
    • comprehend the concepts of settlements
    • distinguish between rural and urban, settlements
    • understand the morphology of a city through case study.
    • analyse the causes of problems of cities.
    • familiarise with distribution of Mega cities

Unit 6

Monsoon Asia : People

  • Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population – literacy, linguistic, sex, rural-urban and occupational– regional variations of population change.
  • Migration: international, national-causes and consequences.
  • Human Development: selected indicators and regional patterns.
  • analyse the factors affecting population distribution and growth.
  • understand the phenomenon and its types.
  • analyse the causes and consequences of migration. Analyse the regional patterns and indicators.

Unit 7

Human Settlements

  • Rural settlements - types and distribution.
  • Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.
  • recognise rural settlements.
  • distinguish between types of rural settlements. Learn about their distribution.
  • know about urban settlements. Distinguish between types of rural settlements. Learn about their distribution.

Unit 8

Resources and Development

  • Land resources- Land Use, pattern of agricultural land distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), pattern of agricultural development.
  • analyse the pattern of agricultural land use and know about the distribution of major crops. Comprehend the reason behind the distribution. Analyse the pattern of agricultural development and associated problems
  • Water resources-availability and utilisation-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation of water - Rain water harvesting and watershed management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be introduced). Conflicts related to river water utilisation (national and international).
  • Mineral and energy resources-distribution of metallic (Iron-ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese) ; non- metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydro electricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation
  • Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, petrochemicals, impact of globalisation on industrial location.

Unit 9

Transport Communication and International Trade

  • Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gaspipelines; communication networkings - radio, television, satellite and internet.
  • International trade-changing pattern of international trade within the monsoon Asian region and rest of the world.
  • explain about different modes of transport, their distribution and role in the economy. understand about communications.
  • explain the different modes of communication and the role in the life of people and economy
  • explain the concept of international trade
  • analyse the changing pattern of trade both with the region and international level.

Unit 10

Geographical Perspective on Selected issues And Problems

  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.
  • Urbanisation, rural-urban migration (problems of slums)
    • identify the causes of area specific environmental pollution and urban waste disposal and appreciate the need to overcome the problem.
  • Land Degradation
    • explain the process of urbanisation. Appreciate the problems related with rural urban migration.
    • understand the concept of land degradation
    • analyse the reasons and appreciate the need for different types of conservation.
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