# Physics (PHY 1207) - Grade 12

Unit | Area Covered | Marks | |
---|---|---|---|

Unit 1 |
Electrostatics | 05 | Read more |

Unit 2 |
Current Electricity | 05 | Read more |

Unit 3 |
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism | 10 | Read more |

Unit 4 |
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents | 20 | Read more |

Unit 5 |
Electromagnetic Waves | 10 | Read more |

Unit 6 |
Optics | 05 | Read more |

Unit 7 |
Dual Nature of Matter and Radiations | 10 | Read more |

Unit 8 |
Atoms and Nuclei | 05 | Read more |

Unit 9 |
Electronic Devices | 20 | Read more |

Unit 10 |
Communication Systems | 10 | Read more |

Total Marks |
100 |

# Unit 1

**Electrostatics**

- Electric charge
- Kinds of charges
- Coulomb‟s law: force between two point charges
- Forces between multiple charges
- Principle of superposition and continuous charge distribution
- Electric field
- Electric field due to a point charge
- Electric field lines
- Electric dipole and electric field due to it Torque on a dipole in uniform electric field

- Statement of Gauss‟s theorem
- Applications of Gauss‟s theorem to determine electric field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)

- Electric potential
- Potential difference
- Electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and a system of charges
- Equipotential surfaces

- Electric potential energy
- System of two point charges
- Electric dipole in an electrostatic field

- Conductors and insulators
- Free charges and bound charges inside a conductor
- Dielectrics and electric polarization

# Unit 2

**Current Electricity**

- Electric current
- Flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor
- Drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current
- Resistance
- Ohm‟s law and electrical resistance
- V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear)
- Electrical energy and power
- Electrical resistivity and conductivity
- Carbon resistors
- Colour code for carbon resistance
- Series and parallel combinations of resistors
- Temperature dependence of resistance

- Cell
- Internal resistance of a cell
- Potential difference and emf of a cell
- Combination of cells in series and in parallel

- Electrical measurements
- Kirchhoff‟s laws and define the reciprocal of resistivity of a material as its conductivity.
- realize the advantage of remembering the sentence "B B ROY of Great Britain has a Very Good Wife" in determining the value and the tolerance of carbon resistances.
- express the total resistance of a series and a parallel combination of resistors in terms of the resistances of the individual resistors in the combination.
- appreciate that the temperature coefficient of a resistance is defined as the change in Potentiometer: principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells
- Measurement of internal resistance of a cell

# Unit 3

**Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism**

- Magnetic Field
- Concept of magnetic field
- Oersted‟s Experiment
- Biot-savart Law:
- its application to current carrying circular loop.
- its application to infinitely long straight wire

- Ampere's law
- Interaction of Magnetic Field with moving charges and current carrying conductors
- Force on a moving charge n uniform magnetic and electric fields; Lorentz force
- Force on a current carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field
- Force between two parallel current carrying conductors
- Definition of ampere
- Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field
- Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron
- Motion of a 'moving charge' n a magnetic field
- General trajectory of a moving charge in a magnetic field
- The Cyclotron
- Velocity Selector
- Moving Coil
- Galvanometer
- Principle, construction and working of a moving coil galvanometer
- "Conversion‟ of a moving coil galvanometer into an ammeter a voltmeter
- Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole
- Magnetic Field Lines
- Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field
- Bar Magnet as an equivalent solenoid
- Earth's Magnetic Field
- Cause of Earth‟s magnetic field and the simple pictorial representation
- The "three elements‟ used the describing earth‟s magnetic field.

- Magnetic Substances
- Magnetisation and agnetic Intensity
- Permeability and susceptibility
- Diamagnetism
- Paramagnetism
- Ferromagnetism

- Electro Magnets and Permanent Magnets
- Electromagnets
- Factor affecting the strength of Electromagnets
- Permanent Magnets

# Unit 4

**Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents**

- Electromagnetic Induction
- Electromagnetic Induction
- Faraday‟s law
- Induced Emf and Current
- Lenz‟s law
- Motional electromotive force
- Eddy Currents
- Self induction and the coefficient of self inductance
- Alternating Currents
- Alternating Currents
- Peak and rms values of alternating currents and voltages
- Alternating voltage applied to a pure inductor (L)
- Alternating voltage applied to a pure capacitor (C)

- AC Circuits
- Alternating voltage applied to a pure resistor (R)
- Phasor representation† AC current and voltage
- Graphical simultaneous representation of AC voltage (V) and AC current (I) versus (ωt)
- Series LCR circuit
- Resonance
- Power in AC circuits
- Wattless Currents
- LC oscillations (Qualitative study only)

- Electrical Devices
- AC generator
- Transformer

# Unit 5

**Electromagnetic Waves**

- Displacement current
- Maxwell‟s Equations
- Ampere‟s law
- Applications

- Electromagnetic Waves
- production
- characteristic
- properties
- mathematical and graphical representation

- Electromagnetic spectrum
- different regions of e.m. spectrum production and detection of e.m. waves
- frequency and wavelength ranges
- uses of em waves

# Unit 6

**Optics**

- Reflection of light
- the phenomenon
- applications

- Spherical mirrors
- related terms
- sign conventions
- ray diagrams

- Mirror formula
- Derivation of the formula
- linear magnification
- related numiercals

- Refraction of light
- Meaning
- Laws of refraction
- Refractive index
- related problems

- Total internal reflection
- meaning of the term
- necessary conditions
- daily life examples

- Refraction at a spherical surface
- related terms
- spherical mirror, for both kinds of mirrors.
- derive the mirror formula for a spherical mirror

- appreciate the algebric nature of the terms u, v, f and r
- define the term linear magnification and obtain the it mathematical expression for it
- solve problems on the mirror formula.
- recall the meaning of the term refraction of light
- state snell‟s law
- Thin Lenses
- lens formula
- lens maker‟s formula
- magnification
- power of a lens
- combination of lenses
- combination of a lens and a mirror

- Prism, Dispersion and scattering of light
- Refraction of light through a prism
- the "prism equations‟
- dispersion of light
- dispersion in a prism
- scattering of light
- related natural phenomenon

- Human Eye
- image formation
- power of accommod-ation
- common defects of vision and their correction
- correction of vision defects

- Optical instruments
- microscopes
- simple microscope
- compound microscope
- astronomical telescopes-refracting and reflecting
- terrestrial telescope

- Wave optics
- wave front
- Huygen‟s principle
- reflection and refraction of plane waves at a plane surface using Huygen‟s principle
- Doppler effect (qualitative)

- Interference of light
- the phenomenon
- coherent sources
- young‟s double slit experiment.

- Diffraction of light
- the phenomenon
- diffraction at a single slit
- interference and diffraction patterns
- resolving power of optical instruments.

- Polarisation of light
- the phenomenon
- plane polarized light
- Mulus‟ law
- polarisation by scattering
- polarisation by reflection
- Brewster‟s law
- Polaroids

# Unit 7

**Dual Nature of Matter and Radiations**

- Dual Nature of Radiations
- Hertz‟s experiment
- Emission of electron

- Photoelectric Effect
- Phenomenon of photoelectric effect
- factors affecting photoelectric current
- related terms
- laws of photoelectric effect

- Einstein's photoelectric equation
- mathematical expression
- explanation of photoelectric effect on the basis of Mathematical equation
- explanation of laws of photoelectric effect based on Mathematical equation
- particle nature of light- the phton
- dual nature of light

- Wave nature of matter
- wave nature of particles
- de-Broglie relation
- Davisson-Germer experiment

# Unit 8

**Atoms and Nuclei**

- Alpha particle scattering Experiment
- Alpha particle scattering
- Concept of atomic nucleus

- Rutherford's Atomic model
- Basic model
- atomic spectra

- The Bohr Model of the atom
- Postulates
- Mathematical Expressions
- Energy level Diagram
- Derive mathematical
- expressions for The Nucleus

- Composition and size of nucleus
- Atomic masses, isotopes, isobars and isotones

- Radioactivity
- alpha, beta and gamma rays and their properties
- Radioactive decay laws

- Mass-Energy relation and mass defect
- binding energy per nuclear and its variation with mass number
- Nuclear-reactions: fission and fusion

# Unit 9

**Electronic Devices**

- Solids
- Energy bands in solids(Qualitative ideas only)
- Conductors, insulators and semiconductors

- Semiconductor devices
- Semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias
- Diode as a rectifier
- I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode
- Zener diode as a voltage regulator
- Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor
- Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration)
- Oscillator using transistor

- Digital electronics
- Logic gates NOT, OR, AND, NOR and NAND
- Transistor as a switch

# Unit 10

**Communication Systems**

- Communication
- Elements of communication system (blockdiagram only)
- Bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data)
- Bandwidth of transmission medium
- Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation

- Modulation
- Need for modulation
- Production and detection of amplitude-modulated wave